16. Wondering about what, if anything happened before the Big Bang

The next time you blow up your chest and think that you as a human are something special perhaps you should think again. The time that the human race has existed is in Cosmic time is shorter than your next breath. One way to bring Mankind down to earth is to look at what Carl Sagan called his “Cosmic Calendar.”

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Within the scheme of Sagan’s “Cosmic Calendar,” and that the average human life being some 70-80 years, this life would be equivalent to approximately 0.16 cosmic seconds. This being that the known universe is believed to be 13 billion . 7 years old.

Do you remember the high school math class when you learned that the whole is the sum of its parts? What this means to me is that the whole can’t be a whole unless it has all its parts. Therefor the Cosmos cannot function properly unless all its part functions in a proper manner. So we are very important. We are only so if we think of ourselves in relation to all other parts of the Cosmos.

For the reader to better as well as appreciate the above statement that the whole is made up of all its parts, therefore making the parts of the whole so very important might read this following brief explanation of what occurred in the cosmos from the time of the Big Bang, the beginning of time and of our known universe.


13.7 Ga Big Bang

t = 0 — seconds Universe begins in an instant in time. It grows.

t = 0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 seconds — Planck Time

Gravity separates from the other fundamental forces. Physics works!

?? Known physics cannot explain the properties of the Universe between the Big Bang and the Planck Time. To understand this period, gravity, which controls the interactions of the largest scales, and quantum mechanics, which describes the behavior of the smallest scales, must be united.

Universe is incredibly dense and hot, about a billion billion billion times hotter than the Earth today. This early universe contains only elementary particles (like protons) and energy. No planets, stars, or galaxies exist yet.

t = 0.001 second — Universe has no center and no edge but it expands. (Balloon Analogy)

Particles of matter and antimatter annihilate one another. For every two billion and one particles created in the Universe, two billion are destroyed. The universe continues to expand and cool.

t = 3 minutes — The simplest atomic nuclei are formed from protons and neutrons.

The matter in the Universe is about 75% Hydrogen and 25% Helium by mass, with a little Lithium and Beryllium. But it is still too hot for electrons to attach to nuclei to form atoms. Particles of light – photons – continually collide with electrons. Though these energetic photons move at the speed of light, they cannot travel far in the Universe. (See the Periodic Table of Elements.)

The energetic cosmic background radiation still prevents electrons from combining with nuclei. The universe is hot and opaque, but continues to expand.

t = 300,000 years — Era of Recombination

Atoms form when the Universe will cool to about ten times the temperature of the Earth today. The Universe becomes transparent: the cosmic background radiation is free to travel through space. We can observe these photons from the beginning of time (see Cosmic Microwave Background).

Gravity pulls matter together: regions of higher density grow. The Universe becomes lumpy.

t = 1 billion years (12.7 Ga) — Galaxies, clusters,and superclusters of galaxies form as immense clouds of gas collapse due to gravity. Stars form from the Hydrogen and Helium gas. (See Hubble Ultra Deep Field.)
The stars create elements heavier than Hydrogen and Helium in their interiors. The new elements are ejected from the stars by winds, planetary nebulae, and supernova explosions. The heavy elements mix with gas that forms new stars. (See more about Star Birth.)

t = 8.7 billion years years (5 Ga) — Our solar system – the Sun, planets, asteroids, comets, and moons – forms from supernova debris (gas enriched by heavy elements). All the atoms in the periodic table are now present, including carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, iron, gold, and uranium. These elements that are so necessary to create the Earth, life, and you were formed deep inside another star. (See more about Nucleosynthesis and review the Periodic Table of Elements.)

So what does this mean? Human being part of a designed cosmic system in relation to the age of the known universe has only exsisted 0.16. This is not a very long period of time so one might think that humankind is not that important. I believe that being a part of the whole makes humans and all other parts of the whole very important since the whole of any things needs all its parts to function.

According to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity the speed of light is a constant. That speed is 187,000 miles per second. Also according to Einstein the closer that matter comes to the speed of light the more it will slow up and never reach the speed of light. If the speed of light was reached time would not exist.

The Famous Balloon Analogy:
A good way to help visualize the expanding universe is to compare space with the surface of an expanding balloon. This analogy was used by Arthur Eddington as early as 1933 in his book The Expanding Universe. It was also used by Fred Hoyle in the 1960 edition of his popular book The Nature of the Universe. Hoyle wrote, “My non-mathematical friends often tell me that they find it difficult to picture this expansion. Short of using a lot of mathematics I cannot do better than use the analogy of a balloon with a large number of dots marked on its surface. If the balloon is blown up the distances between the dots increase in the same way as the distances between the galaxies.”


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