BANG ———- 13.7 Ga Big Bang t = 0 — seconds Universe begins in an instant in time. It grows. t = 0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 seconds — During this time referred to as Planck Time Gravity separates from the other fundamental forces. Physics works! ?? Known physics cannot explain the properties of the Universe between the Big Bang and the Planck Time. To understand this period, gravity, which controls the interactions of the largest scales, and quantum mechanics, which describes the behavior of the smallest scales, must be united. ( The mathematics used to explain time after Planck Time does not work when used to explain time after Planck time.
The universe is incredibly dense and hot, about a billion billion billion times hotter than the Earth today. This early universe contains only elementary particles (like protons) and energy. No planets, stars, or galaxies exist yet. t = 0.001 seconds. The Universe has no center and no edge but it expands. (Balloon Analogy) Particles of matter and antimatter annihilate one another. For every two billion and one particles created in the Universe, two billion are destroyed. The universe continues to expand and cool. t = 3 minutes — The simplest atomic nuclei are formed from protons and neutrons. Matter in the Universe is about 75% Hydrogen and 25% Helium by mass, with a little Lithium and Beryllium. ( Matter in the universe is only a small part of the universe.) Today physics refers to the rest of the universe as Dark Energy which is about 24% of the known universe and Dark Energy which makes up the remaining universe.) Even with the use of advanced physics science today does not know what Dark Matter and Dark Energy is made of. Science does know that it does exist for without it stars within a galaxy would not be held together since there is not enough mass within the galaxy to hold the galaxy together. In addition, science believes that the universe is expanding and it would not expand unless some force believed to be Dark Energy was causing this to occur. Many in the physics of today believe that perhaps that Dark Matter as well as Dark Energy to be anti-matter.
At this time the universe is still too hot for electrons to attach to nuclei to form atoms. Particles of light – photons continually collide with electrons. Though these energetic photons move at the speed of light, they cannot travel far in the Universe. (See the Periodic Table of Elements .) The energetic cosmic background radiation still prevents electrons from combining with nuclei.
The universe is hot and opaque but continues to expand. t = 300,000 years. This is the era of Recombination. Atoms form when the Universe will cool to about ten times the temperature of the Earth today. (The stars now light up.) The Universe becomes transparent: the cosmic background radiation is free to travel through space. We can observe these photons from the beginning of time (see Cosmic Microwave Background ). Gravity pulls matter together: regions of higher density grow. The Universe become lumpy . t = 1 billion years (12.7 Ga) — Galaxies, clusters, and superclusters of galaxies form as immense clouds of gas collapse due to gravity. Stars form from the Hydrogen and Helium gas. (See Hubble Ultra Deep Field .) Stars create elements heavier than Hydrogen and Helium in their interiors. The new elements are ejected from the stars by winds, planetary nebulae, and supernova explosions. The heavy elements mix with gas that forms new stars. (See more about Star Birth .) t = 8.7 billion years (5 Ga) — Our solar system the Sun, planets, asteroids, comets, and moons – forms from supernova debris (gas enriched by heavy elements).
All the atoms in the periodic table are now present, including carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, iron, gold, and uranium. These elements that are so necessary to create the Earth, life, you and me are formed deep inside another star. Mankind made of these elements are in truth star dust. (See more about Nucleosynthesis and review the Periodic Table of Elements .)
The Famous Balloon Analogy.
A good way to help visualize the expanding universe is to compare space with the surface of an expanding balloon. This analogy was used by Arthur Eddington as early as 1933 in his book The Expanding Universe. It was also used by Fred Hoyle in the 1960 edition of his popular book The Nature of the Universe. Hoyle wrote, “My non-mathematical friends often tell me that they find it difficult to picture this expansion. Short of using a lot of mathematics I cannot do better than using the analogy of a balloon with a large number of dots marked on its surface. If the balloon is blown up the distances between the dots increase in the same way as the distances between the galaxies.”
The earth and all matter including mankind is made of the elements as shown in the periodic table. All of the elements in the table were produced by stars. We are Stardust!
“The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, the carbon in our apple pies were made in the interiors of collapsing stars. We are made of starstuff.”
― Carl Sagan, Cosmos